**Functors, Applicatives, And Monads In Pictures (In Elm)**

## Elm Version

This is a translation ofFunctors, Applicatives, And Monads In Picturesfrom Haskell into Elm. I left the Haskell examples as reference.

I don’t want to take any merit for writing this, I only went through the fun exercise of translating the code snippets in Elm.

If you enjoy this post be sure to say thanks to the author of the original version:Aditya Bhargava,@_egonschieleon Twitter.

This is the list of operators and function mentioned in the article:

(+)Addition(*)Multiplication(//)Integer division

(%) Modulo operation(<|)Backward function application(|>)Forward function application(<<)Function composition(>>)Function compositionMaybe.MaybeMaybe.mapMaybe.map2Maybe.andThenList.mapList.concatMap

With parenthesis operator can be used without the infix notation like

2 + 3 == (+) 2 3, so

(+)3return a function with type annotation

number -> number.

All Elm code example can run inside elm-repl, if you don’t have Elm installed you can use theonline version of elm-repl.To write multiline command be sure to add “/” at the end of the line, if not already present.

Here’s a simple value:

And we know how to apply a function to this value:

Simple enough. Lets extend this by saying that any value can be in a context. For now you can think of a context as a box that you can put a value in:

Now when you apply a function to this value, you’ll get different results **depending on the context**. This is the idea that Functors, Applicatives, Monads, Arrows etc are all based on. The `Maybe`

data type defines two related contexts:

In Haskell:data Maybe a = Nothing | Just aIn Elm:type Maybe a = Nothing | Just a

In a second we’ll see how function application is different when something is a `Just a`

versus a `Nothing`

. First let's talk about Functors!

# Functors

When a value is wrapped in a context, you can’t apply a normal function to it:

This is where `fmap`

comes in. `fmap`

is from the street, `fmap`

is hip to contexts. `fmap`

knows how to apply functions to values that are wrapped in a context. For example, suppose you want to apply `(+3)`

to `Just 2`

. Use `fmap`

:

In Haskell:> fmap (+3) (Just 2)

Just 5In Elm:> Maybe.map ((+)3) (Just 2)

Just 5---Elm doesn't have typeclasses (info here and here) so let's use directly Maybe.map. The type signature of Maybe.map isMaybe.map : (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe bthat is a special case offmap :: (a -> b) -> fa -> fbwhere f = Maybe

**Bam!** `fmap`

shows us how it's done! But how does `fmap`

know how to apply the function?

# Just what is a Functor, really?

`Functor`

is a typeclass. Here's the definition:

A `Functor`

is any data type that defines how `fmap`

applies to it. Here's how `fmap`

works:

So we can do this:

In Haskell:> fmap (+3) (Just 2)

Just 5In Elm:> Maybe.map ((+)3) (Just 2)

Just 5

And `fmap`

magically applies this function, because `Maybe`

is a Functor. It specifies how `fmap`

applies to `Just`

s and `Nothing`

s:

In Haskell:instance Functor Maybe where

fmap func (Just val) = Just (func val)

fmap func Nothing = NothingIn Elm:This is how Maybe.map is defined in Elm:map func maybe =

case maybe of

Just val -> Just (func val)

Nothing -> Nothing

Here’s what is happening behind the scenes when we write `fmap (+3) (Just 2)`

:

So then you’re like, alright `fmap`

, please apply `(+3)`

to a `Nothing`

?

In Haskell:> fmap (+3) Nothing

NothingIn Elm:> Maybe.map ((+)3) Nothing

Nothing

Like Morpheus in the Matrix, `fmap`

knows just what to do; you start with `Nothing`

, and you end up with `Nothing`

! `fmap`

is zen. Now it makes sense why the `Maybe`

data type exists. For example, here's how you work with a database record in a language without `Maybe`

:

`post = Post.find_by_id(1)`

if post

return post.title

else

return nil

end

But in Haskell:

In Haskell:fmap (getPostTitle) (findPost 1)In Elm:Maybe.map getPostTitle (findPost 1)

If `findPost`

returns a post, we will get the title with `getPostTitle`

. If it returns `Nothing`

, we will return `Nothing`

! Pretty neat, huh? `<$>`

is the infix version of `fmap`

, so you will often see this instead:

In Haskell:getPostTitle <$> (findPost 1)In Elm:Maybe.map getPostTitle (findPost 1)---infix operators will not be supported in new releases of Elm so let's keep using Maybe.map

Here’s another example: what happens when you apply a function to a list?

Lists are functors too! Here’s the definition:

In Haskell:instance Functor [] where

fmap = mapIn Elm:List.map

Okay, okay, one last example: what happens when you apply a function to another function?

In Haskell:fmap (+3) (+1)In Elm:(+)3 << (+)1---In Elm "<<" and ">>" are the infix operators for function composition

Here’s a function:

Here’s a function applied to another function:

The result is just another function!

In Haskell:> import Control.Applicative

> let foo = fmap (+3) (+2)

> foo 10

15In Elm:> foo = (+)3 << (+)2

> foo 10

15

So functions are Functors too!

In Haskell:instance Functor ((->) r) where

fmap f g = f . gIn Elm:(>>) g f x = f (g x)

(<<) f g x = f (g x)

When you use fmap on a function, you’re just doing function composition!

# Applicatives

Applicatives take it to the next level. With an applicative, our values are wrapped in a context, just like Functors:

But our functions are wrapped in a context too!

Yeah. Let that sink in. Applicatives don’t kid around. `Control.Applicative`

defines `<*>`

, which knows how to apply a function *wrapped in a context* to a value *wrapped in a context*:

i.e:

In Haskell:Just (+3) <*> Just 2 == Just 5In Elm:Just ((+)3) |> applicative (Just 2) == Just 5---Elm doesn't have <*>. We can achieve the same result defining "applicative" as> applicative maybeValue maybeCallback = \

case maybeCallback of \

Just callback -> case maybeValue of \

Just value -> Just (callback value) \

Nothing -> Nothing \

Nothing -> Nothingor shortly as> applicative = Maybe.map2 (|>)type signature isapplicative : Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe bwhile in Haskell(<*>) :: f(a -> b) -> fa -> fb

Using `<*>`

can lead to some interesting situations. For example:

In Haskell:> [(*2), (+3)] <*> [1, 2, 3]

[2, 4, 6, 4, 5, 6]In Elm:> [(*)2, (+)3] |> applicativeList [1, 2, 3]

[2, 4, 6, 4, 5, 6]---In this case we need to build a new applicative for the list> applicativeList l fl = \

List.concatMap (\f -> List.map (\i -> f i) l) fl

Here’s something you can do with Applicatives that you can’t do with Functors. How do you apply a function that takes two arguments to two wrapped values?

In Haskell:> (+) <$> (Just 5)

Just (+5)

> Just (+5) <$> (Just 4)

ERROR ??? WHAT DOES THIS EVEN MEAN WHY IS THE FUNCTION WRAPPED IN A JUSTIn Elm:> Maybe.map (+) (Just 5)

Just ((+)5)

> Maybe.map (Just ((+)5)) (Just 4)-- TYPE MISMATCH -----------------------------The 1st argument to function `map` is causing a mismatch.7| Maybe.map (Just ((+)5)) (Just 4)

^^^^^^^^^^

Function `map` is expecting the 1st argument to be:a -> Maybe (number -> number)But it is:Maybe (number -> number)Hint: It looks like a function needs 1 more argument.

Applicatives:

In Haskell:> (+) <$> (Just 5)

Just (+5)

> Just (+5) <*> (Just 3)

Just 8In Elm:> Maybe.map (+) (Just 5)

Just ((+)5)

> Just ((+)5) |> applicative (Just 3)

Just 8

`Applicative`

pushes `Functor`

aside. "Big boys can use functions with any number of arguments," it says. "Armed `<$>`

and `<*>`

, I can take any function that expects any number of unwrapped values. Then I pass it all wrapped values, and I get a wrapped value out! AHAHAHAHAH!"

In Haskell:> (*) <$> Just 5 <*> Just 3

Just 15In Elm:> Maybe.map (*) (Just 5) |> applicative (Just 3)

Just 15

And hey! There’s a function called `liftA2`

that does the same thing:

In Haskell:> liftA2 (*) (Just 5) (Just 3)

Just 15In Elm:> Maybe.map2 (*) (Just 5) (Just 3)

Just 15

# Monads

How to learn about Monads:

- Get a PhD in computer science.
- Throw it away because you don’t need it for this section!

Monads add a new twist.

Functors apply a function to a wrapped value:

Applicatives apply a wrapped function to a wrapped value:

Monads apply a function **that returns a wrapped value** to a wrapped value. Monads have a function `>>=`

(pronounced "bind") to do this.

Let’s see an example. Good ol’ `Maybe`

is a monad:

Suppose `half`

is a function that only works on even numbers:

In Haskell:half x = if even x

then Just (x `div` 2)

else Nothing

In Elm:half x = if even x \

then Just (x // 2) \

else Nothing---"even" is not part of the standard library. It can be defined like:even n = n % 2 == 0

What if we feed it a wrapped value?

We need to use `>>=`

to shove our wrapped value into the function. Here's a photo of `>>=`

:

Here’s how it works:

In Haskell:> Just 3 >>= half

Nothing

> Just 4 >>= half

Just 2

> Nothing >>= half

NothingIn Elm:> Just 3 |> Maybe.andThen half

Nothing

> Just 4 |> Maybe.andThen half

Just 2

> Nothing |> Maybe.andThen half

Nothing---The analogue of ">>=" in Elm, for Maybe, is Maybe.andThen that is defined as:andThen : (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b

andThen callback maybeValue =

case maybeValue of

Just value ->

callback value Nothing ->

Nothing

What’s happening inside? `Monad`

is another typeclass. Here's a partial definition:

In Haskell:class Monad m where

(>>=) :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m bIn Elm: andThen : (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b

Where `>>=`

is:

So `Maybe`

is a Monad:

In Haskell:instance Monad Maybe where

Nothing >>= func = Nothing

Just val >>= func = func valIn Elm:andThen func maybe =

case maybe of

Nothing -> Nothing

Just val -> func val

Here it is in action with a `Just 3`

!

And if you pass in a `Nothing`

it's even simpler:

You can also chain these calls:

In Haskell:> Just 20 >>= half >>= half >>= half

NothingIn Elm:> Just 20 \

|> Maybe.andThen half \

|> Maybe.andThen half \

|> Maybe.andThen half

Nothing---To recap, in Haskell:Functors (<$>) :: (a -> b) -> fa -> fb

Applicatives (<*>) :: f(a -> b) -> fa -> fb

Mondads (>>=) :: (a -> fb) -> fa -> fbIn Elm, using the Maybe monad as example:Maybe.map : (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b

applicative : Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b

Maybe.andThen : (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe bI rearranged the terms of "(>>=) :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b" to highlight the similarities with Functors and Applicatives and also to be consistent with the type signature of Maybe.andThen. To be composable the terms need to be in the proper position. This is why in Elm we use "|>" to chain andThen.In Haskell:Just 20 >>= halfIn Elm:Just 20 |> Maybe.andThen halforMaybe.andThen half (Just 20)

Cool stuff! So now we know that `Maybe`

is a `Functor`

, an `Applicative`

, and a `Monad`

.

Now let’s mosey on over to another example: the `IO`

monad:

Specifically three functions. `getLine`

takes no arguments and gets user input:

In Haskell:getLine :: IO StringIn Elm:getTime : Task.Task x Time.Time---Instead "IO String", let's use "Task err ok" in Elm.We will build a different example:Let suppose that we want to get the present time and use it as parameter in a first http request to get a page, and then use the returned page as parameter for a second http request to get a second page.1. get the present time

2. get a page using the time as parameter

3. get a second page using the first page as parameterSo, getLine (in the Haskell example) will be getTime in Elm:getTime = Time.nowto run these examples in the elm-repl, remember to run these commands first:import Task

import Time

import Http

`readFile`

takes a string (a filename) and returns that file's contents:

In Haskell:readFile :: FilePath -> IO StringIn Elm:readFile : a -> Task.Task Http.Error String---For example:readFile time = \

Http.getString ("https://example.com?time=" ++ toString time) \

|> Http.toTask

`putStrLn`

takes a string and prints it:

In Haskell:putStrLn :: String -> IO ()In Elm:readSecondFile : a -> Task.Task Http.Error String---For example:readSecondFile response = \

Http.getString ("https://example.com?response=" ++ toString response) \

|> Http.toTask

All three functions take a regular value (or no value) and return a wrapped value. We can chain all of these using `>>=`

!

In Haskell:getLine >>= readFile >>= putStrLnIn Elm:getTime \

|> Task.andThen readFile \

|> Task.andThen readSecondFile

Aw yeah! Front row seats to the monad show!

Haskell also provides us with some syntactical sugar for monads, called `do`

notation:

`foo = do`

filename <- getLine

contents <- readFile filename

putStrLn contents

# Conclusion

- A functor is a data type that implements the
`Functor`

typeclass. - An applicative is a data type that implements the
`Applicative`

typeclass. - A monad is a data type that implements the
`Monad`

typeclass. - A
`Maybe`

implements all three, so it is a functor, an applicative,*and*a monad.

What is the difference between the three?

- functors: you apply a function to a wrapped value using
`fmap`

or`<$>`

(for example:`Maybe.map`

in Elm) - applicatives: you apply a wrapped function to a wrapped value using
`<*>`

or`liftA`

(for example:`Maybe.map2 (|>)`

or`Maybe.map2`

in Elm) - monads: you apply a function that returns a wrapped value, to a wrapped value using
`>>=`

or`liftM`

(for example:`Maybe.andThen`

in Elm)

So, dear friend (I think we are friends by this point), I think we both agree that monads are easy and a SMART IDEA(tm). Now that you’ve wet your whistle on this guide, why not pull a Mel Gibson and grab the whole bottle. Check out LYAH’s section on Monads. There’s a lot of things I’ve glossed over because Miran does a great job going in-depth with this stuff.

Examples in Ellie: https://ellie-app.com/NZqfGnCyBpa1

Gist: https://gist.github.com/lucamug/d24b18d99686d194373fec83e0b17cf7

This is a translation ofFunctors, Applicatives, And Monads In Picturesfrom Haskell into Elm. I left the Haskell examples as reference.

I don’t want to take any merit for writing this, I only went through the fun exercise of translating the code snippets in Elm.

If you enjoy this post be sure to say thanks to the author of the original version:Aditya Bhargava,@_egonschieleon Twitter.